Pollination is the transference of pollen grain from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of the same or another flower, mediated by abiotic or biotic means. Prepare the pollen germination medium by dissolving 10 grams sucrose, 10 milligrams boric acid, 30 milligrams magnesium sulphate and 20 milligrams potassium nitrate in 100ml of distilled water. Pdf pollen germination and tube growth researchgate. Anther and pollen from biology to biotechnology christophe. The germination of the treated wheat seed was evaluated by the process described by qi and burkholder 1981.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. In vitro pollen germination and pollen viability in passion fruit passiflora spp. January 1972 in vitro germination and pollen tube growth of maize zea mays l. The booklet was placed in the germination medium for 15 minutes to. Recent reports that ethylene increases pollen germination and tube growth 1, 8 prompted us to examine pollen as a simple biological system for studies on ethylene action. Temperature as a determinant factor for increased and. Growth, development and reproduction booklet wisconsin fast. Seed germination criteria and seedling characteristics of magnolia grandiflora l. Pollen germination test showed that the germination ability was different among the cultivars. Hassan1,2 1horticulture department, faculty of agriculture, tanta university, egypt 2current address. Germination is the first critical morphogenetic event in the pollen towards fulfilling its ultimate function of discharge of male gametes in the embryo sac. The tube nucleus descends to the tip of the pollen tube. This study was carried out to evaluate pollen quality of eight caprifigs grown in the centereast and northwest of tunisia.
Study pollen germination on a slide notes for free. It is therefore important to understand the physiology and biochemistry of pollen germination. Seed germination, seedling growth and enzyme activity. My germination booklet as found in my nature notebook from seed to plant from. Very less pollen germination and pollen tube elongation were observed at 250 ppm and 400 ppm of calcium respectively. Some plants use the control of pollen germination as a way to prevent this selfpollination. Pollen germination another germination event during the life cycle of gymnosperms and flowering plants is the germination of a pollen grain after pollination. Efficacy of plant extracts on the germination of wheat seeds. Derek bewleyl department of botany, university of guelph, guelph, ontario n1g 2w1, canada introduction seeds are a vital component of the worlds diet.
The graphs show elongation were observed in all cultivars tested. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth events when viewed either in culture or in the style are considered as biochemically, physiologically, and structurally complex. Pollen viability, germination, and seed setting of nelumbo nucifera akhom khatfana, zuo lib, longqing chenc, nopadol riablershiruna, vithaya sathornviriyapongd, niran juntawonga. Germination is quicker and more reliable in a protected environment. Seed germination, seedling growth and enzyme activity of.
Pollen grain introduction pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the micro gametophytes seed plants, which produce the male gametes sperm cells. It was 45% for graking and 35% for peruque, which were both recommended as pollinizers in this study. A study of factors affecting the germination of alfalfa and safflower pollen ling lin utah state university follow this and additional works at. Arabidopsis jingubang is a negative regulator of pollen. Like seeds, pollen grains are severely dehydrated before being released to facilitate their dispersal from one plant to another. The generative cell divides mitotically and produces two sperm nuclei. An in vitro pollen germination rate of about 40% was achieved. Within 30 to 40 minutes, early pollen tubes can be observed under 40x magnification, growing from the pollen grains. Ensabi an experiment was conducted in the laboratories of institute of biological sciences, university of malaya, malaysia. When the female part of the flower is matures, the stigma secretes a sugary solution. Jan 24, 2018 to observe pollen germination on slide. In the first part, the successive steps of pollen development in the anther from floral induction to pollen germination and.
Differential seed germination responses to the ratio of red. The key factor in achieving successful germination and to manipulate pollen tube growth is the osmolarity of pollen germination solution 26. Differential seed germination responses to the ratio of red to farred light in temperate and tropical species pimonrat tiansawat james w. The stigma provides a suitable site for pollen germination. Pollen germination and pollen tube on the pollen germination medium for 180 min. Photomicrograph of gregg 65 cotton pollen exposed to 28 c a 90min incubation at 28 c. Pollen viability, germination, and seed setting of nelumbo.
The stigmas, when viewed with a lens were seen to be covered with minute droplets of water, apparently con densed there by evaporation from other tissues more exposed to external heat. M resulted in 30% inhibition of pollen germination and 40% inhibition of pollen tube growth. The effect of different germination media on pollen. Assessment of pollen viability, germination, and tube growth. The tube cell enlarges and comes out of the pollen grain through one of the germ pores to form a pollen tube. In vitro arabidopsis pollen germination and characterization. Pollen viability, pollination, seed set, and seed germination of croftonweed eupatorium adenophorum in china volume 56 issue 1 hongfei lu, jinbo shen. The objectives of this study were to a quantify the effect of temperature on pollen germination and. On the stigma, the germination of pollen grains begins by absorption of water and nutrients and the pollen grain produces a tiny pollen tube through the style to the ovary. Aug 01, 2001 the pollen germination percentage was nearly 75% and the average pollen tube length reached 5. A study of factors affecting the germination of alfalfa and. Many pollen germination medium ranging from simple sugars to complex one having vitamins, growth regulators, etc.
Pollen germination with fast plants pollen from fast plants can be stimulated to germinate in a sucrosesalt solution maintained as a hanging drop slide. Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. Oct 22, 2014 pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. Orhan kurt university of ondokuz mayos, faculty of agriculture, department of agronomy, 559 samsun, turkey. Study of pollen grain, pollen morphology, pollen germination. Using a glass rod, stir the solution to mix it well. Two colorimetric tests 2,3,5triphenyl tetrazolium chloride ttc and acetocarmine were used to estimate pollen viability.
Saha 1department of agricultural chemistry, hajee mohammad danesh science and technology university, dinajpur, bangladesh. Furthermore, appropriate germination media and culture. Take a few drops of this solution on a clear slide, dust a few pollen grains from the. You can plant out at the correct distance, wasting almost no seed or time with thinning, and you can carry on sowing all year, whatever the weather. Pollen has direct relevance in agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding, crop improvement. Prepare a nutrient solution by dissolving 10g sucrose and 10 mg boric acid in 100 ml water.
Original article seed germination, seedling growth and enzyme activity of wheat seed primed under drought and different temperature conditions azadi. In agriculture and gardening, the germination rate describes how many seeds of a particular plant species, variety or seedlot are likely to germinate over a given period. Cereal grains alone, which comprise 90% of all cultivated seeds, contribute up to half of the global per capita energy intake. The resulting aqueous solution was used for the fungal growth inhibition assay. Pollen germination an overview sciencedirect topics. Temperature as a determinant factor for increased and reproducible in vitro pollen germination in arabidopsis thaliana leonor c. Boavida and sheila mccormick plant gene expression center and plant and microbial biology, usdaars and ucberkeley, 800 buchanan street, albany, ca 94710, usa.
Pollen germination in tradescantia, impatiens, jasmine, lily, pomegranate, california poppy, and protoplasmic streaming in hair cells of tradescantia and leaves of elodea these two experiments are done together with the idea of relating them in terms of mechanisms of protoplasmic movement. The pollen germination and tube elongation were more or less similar at 300 ppm and 350 ppm calcium but slightly higher at 350 ppm of calcium. The primary functions are the production of two sperm cells and their transport within the pollen tube that travels through. This text is intended for plant physiologists, molecular. The first edition of norman denos book was written in 1993, and detailed his conclusions on seed germination, and more particularly his findings on the types of inhibitors preventing seeds from germinating, and ways of overcoming these inhibitors, based on experiments with seeds of over 2500 species, in 805 genera, from 145 plant families. We are intechopen, the worlds leading publisher of open access books. Pollen, the plant structure most widely used by humans, is a key structure in plant. Pollen is anatomically simple compared to other highly differentiated tissues andplant organs generally employed. Fresh seasonal flower slides, microscope, beaker, cavity slide, boric acid, sucrose. Combined effects of storage and the alleles at the waxy wx, sugary su 1and shrunken sh 2loci. Its also better than bending over, or scrabbling along on your knees.
Pollen germination and pollentube growth sciencedirect. Seed germination criteria and seedling characteristics of. Pollen viability, pollination, seed set, and seed germination of. Pdf on dec 7, 2016, gokul sivaraman and others published pollen germination methods find, read and cite all the research you need on. Pollination activities engage students actively in spreading pollen among plants so that they successfully reproduce and develop seed in the next stage.
Further research needs to be carried out to see if these effects of boron also found in a. Thus, it is essential to understand the relationships between responses of pollen to high temperature and leaf membrane thermostability in cotton. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry. It also addresses many basic questions in sexual reproduction and particularly useful in wide hybridization. It is a measure of germination time course and is usually expressed as a percentage, e. Pollen germination in vitro is a reliable method to test the pollen viability.
Thus, pollen germination and pollen tube growth are crucial events in sexual reproduction of. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma after it germinates. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel prunus laurocerasus l. Differences in in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube. The fourth edition of this well established text incorporates very wideranging revisions in the light of recent advances. Biology of seed development and germination physiology. Materials table sugar and salts for stock solutions pipette. Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants. Many aspects of angiosperm pollen germination and tube growth are discussed including mechanisms of dehydration and rehydration, in vitro germination, pollen coat compounds, the dynamic involvement of cytoskeletal elements actin, microtubules, calcium ion fluxes, extracellular matrix elements stylar arabinogalactan proteins, and control. To study on effect of peg 6000 stress on germination and early seedling growth of b. Seed germination theory and practice the seed site. The pollen grain has two cells, the tube nuclei and the generative cell. Pollination is a very important part of the life cycle of a flowering plant. Two pollen viability tests, ttc 2,3,5triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and iki iodine potassium iodide, were used.345 1491 158 491 1399 489 428 1592 945 174 203 537 675 1527 380 998 594 1252 1412 982 714 12 1122 878 1040 1065 1232 607 1369 596 175 1156